In the 10th century B.C., Israel - then a united kingdom - essentially had it all. While we know that God's work was far from over, the covenant God made with Israel at Sinai seemed to reach a powerful climax when Solomon dedicated the temple in Jerusalem. After hundreds of years of slavery in Egypt, a generation of wandering in the desert, no shortage of bloodshed while taking possesion of the promised land, and a few missteps while establishing a united kingdom, everything finally seemed... right. 2 Chron. 5-7 paints a powerful picture of celebration, triumph, and great anticipation at the inauguration of what should have been a long era of spiritual health and national peace. The glory of the Lord filled the temple. God dwelt in the midst of his people and they enjoyed the opportunity for fellowship with and forgiveness from him like never before. There was relative peace within the kingdom and with it's neighbors. Israel propsered.
Just over 200 years later, Israel - now the northern portion of a divided kingdom - was utterly defeated by the Assyrians and carried off into exile. Judah - the southren kingdom - would soon suffer a similar fate. (2 Kings 17:6-41, 25:1-21)
What happened? It may seem obvious with the benefit of 2,736 years of hindsight. But you can imagine the Israelites' questions as they were being led away, "Why is this happening to us? I thought we were God's chosen people! Where is he? Why has he abandonded us? How can a good God let this happen?"